The Engineering Polymers are a grouping of specialised polymer materials that have been "engineered" to have specific materials properties. These generally relate to high strength as well as temperature and chemical resistance. These materials are costly to make and rely on their high performance characteristics as cost reduction programs provide OEM producers with a strong incentive to replace them with lower cost commodity polymers
Ethane is a two-carbon hydrocarbon. At standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colourless, odourless gas. Ethane is produced on an industrial scale either by extraction from natural and associated gas, or as a byproduct of petroleum refining. Its chief use is as petrochemical feedstock in steam crackers for ethylene production.
Ethanol is a two-carbon alcohol which are mainly industrially produced in two ways: by fermentation processes (using starches, sugar crops or lignocellulose as feedstock) which produces fuel grade, or by the catalytic hydration of ethylene (industrial grade). Around 95 percent of globally manufacture ethanol is sourced from the fermentation process. Industrial ethanol is used in the manufacture of several chemicals, acting, in the main, as an intermediate. It is also used as a solvent. The main use for ethanol via fermentation is in fuel. Fuel grade ethanol is used as a substitute for gasoline.
Ethyl Chloride (chloroethane) is produced by the addition of hydrogen chloride to ethylene over an aluminum chloride catalyst. It is also generated as a co-product of PVC. Ethyl chloride's major use was in the production of tetraethyl lead (TEL) used as an anti-knock additive in gasoline, but its use for this application has been phased-out by most countries since leaded gasoline has been prohibited. The main current application is in thickening of cellulose for making ethyl cellulose, a thickening agent for paints and cosmetics. It is also used as a solvent, refrigerant, aerosol propellant, anesthetic and blowing agent for foam packaging.
Ethylbenzene (EB), an aromatic liquid hydrocarbon, is a chemical intermediate made from the reaction of benzene and ethylene. It is a precursor to styrene production.
Ethylene is the most basic member of the olefin chemical family, consisting of two carbon atoms joined by a double bond. The ready accessibility and high reactivity of this double bond lends the molecule to many synthesis reactions, including its most common use as a monomer for producing polyethylenes. Ethylene is industrially produced by the pyrolytic cracking in a steam cracker of a wide variety of hydrocarbons, ranging from ethane to gas oil.
Ethylene Dichloride (EDC)
Ethylene dichloride (EDC) is the first molecule produced in the vinyls chain and is a toxic, flammable, and corrosive liquid at room temperature. EDC is most commonly formed from ethylene and chlorine, both of which are costly and difficult to transport, and thus EDC production is normally located close to sources of such raw materials. EDC is principally used for VCM production, with small amounts used for the manufacture of other organic compounds.
Ethylene Oxide (EO)
Ethylene oxide (EO) has widespread uses in the production of surfactants although its largest and fastest growing end-use is in the production of monoethylene glycol (MEG). EO is grouped with polyester intermediates, as the majority is eventually consumed in the production of PET. EO is produced by reacting ethylene and oxygen over mainly silver-based catalysts. Due to its hazardous nature, minimal volumes of EO are transported, and production tends to be from complexes including both ethylene feedstock and EO derivatives. Production is widespread globally, with development mainly in the Middle East and Asia.